June 27, 2014 at 10:30 am #543
Adverbs qualify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. The most common types of adverb are:
They tell us when, how and where something takes place. Other adverbs qualify a sentence in another way.
Adverbs belong to the open class of parts of speech. However, the creation of new adverbs it is not as common as the creation of new adjectives, nouns or verbs.
In principle, adverbs remain unchanged, i.e. they do not decline. There is one adverb, however, which often behaves like an adjective and receives an end -e when used before an attributive adjective. This is the reinforcing adverb heel:
The same happens with the adverb erg (also in the meaning of ‘very’):
This declension of heel and erg mainly occurs in (informal) speech, not in writing. Be careful when using it!
Adverbs of time tell us when something takes place. In the following sentences examples are highlighted:
Adverbs of manner tell us how something takes place. In the following sentences examples are highlighted:
In the following sentences examples of adverbs of place are highlighted.
Very common adverbs of place are:
- demonstrative: daar, hier – there, here
- interrogative: waar? – where?
- indefinite: ergens, overal – somewhere, everywhere
- negative: nergens – nowhere
One special category of adverb is the group of conjunctional adverbs. Conjunctional adverbs are adverbs because they form part of the sentence. Like conjunctions, however, these adverbs link language elements together. Examples are: bovendien, zelfs, echter, toch, daarom, immers, overigens.
Another special category of adverb is the group of pronominal adverbs, which are adverbs of place in form, even though they are pronouns in function.
The class of adverbs is not as open as the the classes of >nouns, adjectives or verbs. If new adverbs enter the Dutch language, they tend to be adverbs of manner. If this occurs, it is usually with the diminutisation of adverbs of manner. This is a process whereby an adverb is given the ending –jes, which has a similar effect as the formation of diminutives in nouns. A Dutch author who has added a number of these to the Dutch language is Louis Couperus :
In the text above, the adverb netjes provides an example of the established diminutised form of the adverb net (neat, tidy). Voorzichtigjes, however, is not a common form at all.
It appears that the diminutisation of adverbs is one of the few ways in which new adverbs can be added to the lexicon. Already quite common are warmpjes (nice and warm) and gezelligjes (nice and cosy).
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